- Aquila rapax.
- Common resident but locally threatened. Range includes Rumania east through south Russia, south Siberian and Kirghi steppes east through Transbaikalia to Mongolia; south through Arabia, India and in most of Africa.
- Desert, semi-desert, steppes, and open savannah.
- Mostly fresh carrion; mammals up to rabbit size, small to medium rodents, lizards, snakes, seasonal insects, birds up to the size of a guinea fowl.
- Often pirates food from other raptors; kills prey on the ground.
- Nest between March and July on a large stick platform in trees, usually Acacia; usually lay 2 eggs that are white, plain or blotchy with rusty red and gray; the incubation period is 42-44 days with one chick usually killing the other; only the northern populations are migratory; can be found in concentrations where food is plentiful.
- Vocalization is a hoarse, sharp barking “kyow”; rather silent except in nuptial display or aggression.
- Medium to large raptor with a variably tawny head and upper body.
- Hooked bill and fully feathered legs.
- Rounded tail and long wings.
- Females are larger than the males; the females may be darker and more streaked; immature birds are paler then the adults.
- Also known as the Steppe Eagle.